4.1. Maternal deaths in Kenya;
Maternal deaths are the number one killer of Kenyan women. Maternal mortality is the death of a woman while pregnant, during or after delivery or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy. The cause of death should relate to the pregnancy.
1. Postpartum haemorrhage:
Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH)/obstetric haemorrhage accounts for 25 per cent of the total maternal deaths in Kenya. PPH is vaginal bleeding in excess of 500ml within 24 hours after delivery. Severe PPH is blood loss exceeding 1,000ml. This condition is common among 56 per cent of women who do not deliver in hospitals.
2. Hypertension pregnancy disorders (HPD):
Hypertensive disorders represent the most common medical complications of pregnancy. It is probably the reason why they are the second biggest killers after PPH at the Kenyatta National Hospital. The main cause of HPD is failure of expectant mothers to visit the clinic. It is estimated that 90 per cent of pregnant women go for a first antenatal clinic, but the number reduces to 70 per cent at the second visit and even lower in consequent visits.
It is advisable to take clinic attendance seriously to reduce chances of HPD and then ensure a woman delivers in a hospital.
3. Unsafe abortions:
This particularly affects young women who fall victim to unplanned pregnancies and end up procuring abortions from backstreet ‘doctors’.
This is another major killer attributed to home deliveries. It accounts for 15 per cent of total maternal deaths in Kenya. Postpartum infections comprise a wide range of entities that can occur after vaginal and caesarean delivery or during breastfeeding. In addition to trauma sustained during the birth process or caesarean procedure, physiologic changes during pregnancy contribute to the development of postpartum infections.
5. Obstructed labour:
This occurs when a baby is too big for the birth canal or the birth canal is too small for the baby. Normally, this is not an issue when you deliver under the care of a professional, but can become fatal when the delivery takes place at home. The results of obstructed labour include fistula — a ruptured uterus — and death.
6. Others: HIV/AIDS, etc.
Ensuring safer pregnancies for Kenyan women in urban slums:
Most of the health facilities available in the slums face challenges like the lack of skilled personnel and necessary equipment to deal with maternal and child health emergencies.
Transport costs and poverty are barriers to proper utilisation of maternal health care services in the slums leading to deaths of mothers during this critical period.
maternal deaths are caused by developments that can be prevented if they are
4.2. Child mortality in Kenya.
In 2018, infant mortality rate for Kenya was 34.2 deaths per thousand live births. Infant mortality rate of Kenya fell gradually from 36.5 deaths per thousand live births in 2015 to 34.2 deaths per thousand live births in 2018.
What is infant mortality rate?
Probability of dying between birth and exact age 1. It is expressed as deaths per 1,000 births.
Vulnerable first 28 days of baby’s life
The first 28 days of life — the neonatal period — are the most vulnerable time for a child’s survival. Most of the deaths of children under five occur during the neonatal period.
Kenya – Under-five mortality rate
46.6 (deaths per thousand live births) in 2018
In 2018, under-five mortality rate for Kenya was 46.6 deaths per thousand live births. Under-five mortality rate of Kenya fell gradually from 50.4 deaths per thousand live births in 2015 to 46.6 deaths per thousand live births in 2018.
What is under-five mortality rate?
Probability of dying between birth and exact age 5. I is expressed as deaths per 1,000 births.
The leading causes of death among children under five in 2017 were preterm birth complications, acute respiratory infections, intrapartum-related complications, congenital anomalies and diarrhea. Neonatal deaths accounted for 47% of under-five deaths in 2017.
KAMANEH’s work will make a direct contribution to the following targets:
Target 3.1.By 2030, reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100,000 live births.
Target 3.2.By 2030, end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age, with all countries aiming to reduce neonatal mortality to at least as low as 12 per 1,000 live births and under-5 mortality to at least as low as 25 per 1,000 live births.
Target 3.7. By 2030, ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health- care services, including for
family planning, information and education, and the integration of reproductive
health into county strategies and programs.
4.3. Teenage pregnancy rate in Kenya
Data from the National Council for Population and Development indicates that between July 2016 and June 2017, a total of 378,397 pregnant girls between 10 and 19 years were attended at different health facilities across the 47 counties. Another report by the United Nations Population Fund indicates that 28,932 girls between age 10 and 14 and another 349,465 between age 15 and 19 became pregnant at the same period.
These statistics put the average teenage pregnancy rates in the country at 18%. However, as the table above shows, some counties are more affected than others.
Some of the notable factors contributing to teenage pregnancy in Kenya include:
1. Peer Pressure
3. Cultural Practices
5. Broken Families
6. Lack of Sexual Awareness
7. Abuse of Alcohol and Drugs
Breakdown of alarming teenage pregnancy rates in Kenya per county Author: Muyela Roberto Updated: 2 months ago Views: 6287 Category: Local News, Education, Health and Wellness
– Narok, Homa Bay, West Pokot and Tana River counties are hardest hit by the menace.
Complications during pregnancy are the second cause of death for 15 to 19-year-old girls, therefore it means their already poor families have additional health care costs to meet. Children born to such young mothers are more prone to physical and cognitive development.
4.4. Gender and equality in Kenya:
Women in Kenya are underrepresented in decision-making positions. They also have less access to education, land, and employment. Those living in rural areas spend long hours collecting water and firewood; interfering with school attendance and leaving them with little time to earn money or engage in other productive activities. The untapped potential of women and girls is gaining greater attention in Kenya. The country’s new Constitution, passed in 2010, provides a powerful framework for addressing gender equality. It marks a new beginning for women’s rights in Kenya; seeking to remedy the traditional exclusion of women and promote their full involvement in every aspect of growth and development .
Our activities are:
- Creating safe societies where women and girls can live free from violence;
- Providing care and treatment services for victims of gender-based violence;
- Engagement with multiple stakeholders to prevent violence against women;
- Improvement in data collection and analysis.
KAMANEH’s work on SDG 5 – Achieve Gender Equality and Empower All Women and Girls.
- Target 5.6. Ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights as agreed in accordance with the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development and the Beijing Platform for Action and the outcome documents of their review conferences.
4.5 Kenya’s water and sanitation crisis
Adequate access to safe water and improved sanitation services is central to achievement of better health and wellbeing of Kenya’s population. These services facilitate prevention of waterborne diseases which in turn may reduce mortality rates and health expenditure.
Adequate availability of water is also critical for sustainable economic growth and reduction of poverty – currently estimated at 36.1% of Kenya’s population – as water supports key economic activities such as agricultural, industrial and energy production. Furthermore, violent conflicts over water resources could reduce if adequate access to quality water is improved across the country.
This report looks at progress towards achieving universal access to water and sanitation services in Kenya, as well as the investments that have been made in this sector.
- There are significant inequalities in access to water from an improved source. If not addressed, this may result in some counties being left behind.
- Significant inequalities also exist in access to improved sanitation services. And the quality of available sanitation services is low, with 78.4% of households using toilets with no place for washing hands.
- Expenditure to the water and sanitation sector has increased in recent years at the national level and in some counties. However, Kenya is facing a huge resource gap (Ksh1.2 trillion) that may negatively affect its ability to achieve universal access to safe water and improved sanitation services by 2030.
- Scaling up access to safe water and improved sanitation services is also constrained by high incidence of poverty, fragmented legal and policy frameworks, inadequate data for planning and budgeting and climate change which affects availability of water.
- With a population of 46 million, 41 percent of Kenyans still rely on unimproved water sources, such as ponds, shallow wells and rivers, while 59 percent of Kenyans use unimproved sanitation solutions. These challenges are especially evident in the rural areas and the urban slums. Only 9 out of 55 public water service providers in Kenya provide continuous water supply, leaving people to find their own ways of searching for appropriate solutions to these basic needs.
KAMANEH’s work on SDG 6:
KAMANEH’s work on SDG 6:
Specifically, KAMANEH’s work will make a direct
contribution to the following;
Target 6.1: By 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations.
Target 6.2. Support and strengthen the participation of local
communities in improving water and sanitation management.